How do dark photons work (particle physics) | by Monodeep Mukherjee | Sep 2022

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  1. Formation and dynamics of dark photon vortices(arXiv)

Author : William E. East, Junwu Huang

Summary : We study the formation and evolution of vortices in dark matter of U(1) black photons and the clouds of black photons that arise through the superradiance of black holes. We show how the production of photonic dark matter in the longitudinal mode and in the transverse mode can lead to the formation of vortices. After the formation of the vortex, the energy stored in the dark matter of dark photons will be transformed into a large number of vortex chains. In the event that a magnetic field of dark photons is produced, bundles of vortex strings form in a superheated phase transition, and evolve into a pattern consisting of many large-scale uncorrelated string loops, analogous to a phase transition. fusion phase in condensed matter. In the process, they dissipate via the emission of dark photons and gravitational waves, providing a target for experimental research. Vortex chains have also recently been shown to form in dark photon superradiance clouds around black holes, and we discuss the dynamics and observational consequences of this phenomenon with phenomenological parameters. In this case, the string loops ejected from the superradiance cloud, in addition to producing gravitational waves, are also quantized magnetic flux lines and can be tracked with magnetometers. We discuss the connection between the dynamics in these scenarios and the similar vortex dynamics found in Type II superconductors

2. Searches for dark photons via the production of Higgs bosons at the LHC and beyond(arXiv)

Author : Sanjoy Biswas, Emidio Gabrielli, Barbara Mele

Summary : Numerous scenarios beyond the Standard Model, aimed at solving long-standing problems in cosmology and particle physics, suggest that dark matter could undergo long-range interactions mediated by unbroken dark U(1) gauge symmetry , thus predicting the existence of a massless dark photon. Unlike the massive dark photon, a massless dark photon can only couple to the standard model sector by means of efficient higher-dimensional operators. The production of massless dark photons at colliders will then in general be suppressed at low energy by a UV energy scale, which is on the order of the masses of portal (messenger) fields connecting the dark and observable sectors. A violation of this expectation is provided by the production of dark photons mediated by the Higgs boson, thanks to the non-decoupling properties of Higgs. The production of Higgs bosons in colliders, followed by the Higgs decay into a photon and a dark photon, then provides a very promising production mechanism for the discovery of the dark photon, being insensitive in certain UV-scale regimes of the new physics. This decay channel gives rise to a particular signature characterized by a monochromatic photon with an energy equal to half the Higgs mass (in the Higgs rest frame) plus the missing energy. We show how such a resonant missing photon-plus-energy signature can be uniquely connected to dark photon production. The production and decay of the Higgs boson into a photon and a dark photon as a source of dark photons is reviewed at the Large Hadron Collider, in light of the current limits of the corresponding signature by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations. Prospects for the production of dark photons in Higgs-mediated processes in future e+e− colliders are also discussed.

3. Constraints on the dark photon of parity violation and mass W (arXiv)

Author : AW Thomas, XG Wang

Summary : We present an analysis of experimental data for parity violating electron scattering (PVES) and atomic parity violation, including the effects of a dark photon. We derive the privileged region of the dark photon parameter space, which provides a good description of the experimental data from the Qweak collaboration and the Jefferson Lab PVDIS collaboration and simultaneously relieves the tension between the neutron skin thickness determined in the PREX-II experiment and nuclear-model predictions. In addition, we extract the parametric region required to explain the latest mass anomaly of the W boson. Our results indicate that a heavy dark photon with a mass greater than the mass of the Z boson is favored, while other sources of new Physics beyond the Standard Model in addition to the dark photon would also be expected.

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