Understanding neutrino interactions part 2 (particle physics) | by Monodeep | Jul 2022

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  1. Probing non-standard interactions of neutrinos with a light boson of the next galactic and diffuse supernova neutrinos(arXiv)

Author : Kensuke Akita, Sang Hui Im, Mehedi Masud

Summary : Nonstandard interactions of neutrinos with a massive boson can produce the bosons in the cores of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). After the emission of the SN core bosons, their subsequent decays into neutrinos can alter the SN neutrino flux. We show that future neutrino observations of an upcoming galactic SN in Super-Kamiokande (SK) and Hyper-Kamiokande (HK) can probe the flavor universal non-standard neutrino couplings to a light boson, improving on the previous limit of l neutrino burst SN 1987A by several orders of magnitude. We also discuss the sensitivity of non-standard neutrino flavor-universal interactions in future diffuse neutrino observations from all past SNes, known as the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB). According to our analysis, DSNB observations in the HK, JUNO, and DUNE experiments can probe such couplings by a factor of ∼2 beyond the SN 1987A constraint. However, our result is also subject to a large uncertainty regarding the precise estimation of the DSNB.

2. High-energy astrophysical neutrinos of the cosmic strings (arXiv)

Author : Cyril Creque-Sarbinowski, Jeffrey Hyde, Marc Kamionkowski

Summary : Cosmic strings that couple to neutrinos may represent part of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino (HEAN) stream seen by IceCube. Here, we calculate the observed spectrum of neutrinos emitted from a population of cosmic string loops that contain quasi-cuspid, -kink, or kink-kink collisions. We consider two major neutrino emission models: one in which these strings directly emit a neutrino, and the other in which they emit a scalar particle that eventually decays into a neutrino. In both cases, the spectrum of cosmic string neutrinos does not match that of the observed HEAN spectrum. We thus find that the maximum contribution of cosmic string neutrinos, through these two scenarios, is at most ∼45% of the observed flux. However, we also find that the presence of cosmic string neutrinos can lead to bumps in the observed neutrino spectrum. Finally, for each of the presented models, we present the viable parameter space for neutrino emission

3. Non-standard interaction of atmospheric neutrinos in a future experiment (arXiv)

Author : Tonia M. Venters, Mary Hall Reno, John F. Krizmanic

Summary : Cosmic ray accelerators capable of reaching ultra-high energies should also produce very high energy neutrinos via hadronic interactions within the source or its immediate environment. Many classes of candidate astrophysical sources are either transient in nature or exhibit flaring activity. Using Earth as a neutrino converter, suborbital and space-based optical Cherenkov detectors, such as POEMMA and EUSO-SPB2, will be able to detect vast rising air showers induced by the decay of tau leptons generated by cosmic tau neutrinos with energies ∼ 10 PeV and more. EUSO-SPB2 and POEMMA will be able to rapidly repoint each other, allowing rapid response to astrophysical transient events. We calculate the transient sensitivity and sky coverage for EUSO-SPB2 and POEMMA, taking into account the constraints imposed by the Sun and the Moon on the observation time. We also calculate the neutrino horizons of the two detectors for a variety of modeled astrophysical neutrino fluences. We find that EUSO-SPB2 and POEMMA will achieve transient sensitivities at the modeled neutrino fluences for nearby sources. We conclude with a discussion of the prospects of each mission detecting at least one transient event for various modeled astrophysical neutrino sources.

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